ITPP (Myo-Inositol Trispyrophosphate)

Myo-Inositol Trispyrophosphate (ITPP) is a relatively new compound that improves the ability of red blood cells to release oxygen into tissues by up to 35%. Its benefits include improved exercise performance, endurance and stamina, as well as mental alertness.

 

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Myo-Inositol Trispyrophosphate (ITPP) Reviews

 

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At a Quick Glance

 

Also Known As

Inositol Tripyrophosphate
ITPP
Myo Inositol Trispyrophosphate
Sometimes confused for: Inositol Triphosphate (IT3) 

 

How It Works

Alters the O2-disassociation curve of haemoglobin in red blood cells.
Allows more O2 to be released into tissues.

 

 

 

Is Used For

Physical energy & exercise performance
Mental alertness and focus  
High altitude exercise
Sexual health
Used in research laboratories

Medical Disclaimer

This product is not intended to treat, diagnose, or cure any disease or ailment. Please read and fully understand the potential adverse effects before using this product. These statements have not been reviewed by the FDA. Please consult your doctor before using any supplements, especially if you have any medical conditions. 

This product has very limited studies regarding potential side effects of long term use in humans. USE WITH CAUTION.


 

 

 

Benefits and Effects on Humans

Based on Available Scientific Research and Anecdotal Evidence

 

 

Used For: Efficacy
Increasing Oxygen Saturation in Tissues ★★★★★
Boosting Exercise Performance ★★★★★
Cognitive Enhancement ★★★★
Altitude Sickness Not known

  

How to Use

Recommended Serving Size, Intervals, Cycling, Forms Available, and Application

 

Serving Size


There is no officially recommended serving size for this supplement since human studies have not yet been conducted. Nevertheless, online user reports tend to focus on a serving size of around 200 – 500 mg.

ITPP has a very long half-life of around 5 days. In fact, peak concentrations are often only reached the day after taking ITPP. As a result, it is recommended to cycle this supplement by only using it every 3 – 4 days. Using ITPP more often may result in tolerance to its effects, and may also increase the chances of experiencing adverse effects.

Store in a cool, dark place. Keep out of reach of children. 

 

Application


Sublingual

ITPP is most often taken sublingually (under the tongue). Carefully measure the correct serving size using a micro scoop, put the powder under your tongue, and allow it to dissolve. Note that ITPP may not have a favourable taste.


Dissolved in water

ITPP is water-soluble and can be dissolved in a glass of water. Measure the correct serving size using a micro scoop, add to a glass of juice or water, stir, and drink. 

 

Evidence-Based Research

 

 

 

1. Summary

 

Myo-Inositol Trispyrophosphate (ITPP) is a recently discovered compound based on Myo-Inositol with significance in its ability to alter the oxygen-disassociation curve for haemoglobin in red blood cells. ITPP can cross cellular membranes and enter into red blood cells. There, it promotes the disassociation of oxygen, to allow greater amounts of oxygen to be released into muscle tissues, organs, and the brain.

 

ITPP is of great interest to medical researchers studying the pathology of diseases related to hypoxia (low oxygen levels). It is currently being developed in laboratories for potential future uses in clinical applications. Myo-Inositol Trispyrophosphate is not a naturally-occurring substance and was first developed in a laboratory by adding 6 phosphate groups to an Inositol compound, giving it the ability to cross over membranes, and altering its effects in humans and animals.

 

Key benefits of Myo-Inositol Trispyrophosphate (ITPP) include its ability to improve exercise performance, endurance and energy, as well as potential benefits for cognition and exercise at high altitudes. ITPP is banned by the World Doping Agency for its potential to improve physical performance. Some anecdotal reports suggest that it may also be effective for sexual vitality in men.

 

The serving size is typically around 250 – 500 mg, taken no more than three times per week. The recommended cycling is once every three days, and not more than 2-3 weeks “on” before taking a break for another two weeks. This is primarily suggested because of ITPP’s long half-life (up to 5 days), as well as the lack of research into potential negative effects of long-term usage.

Myo-inostiol trispyrophosphate for health 

2. Human Effects

 

2.1.Exercise Performance

Myo-Inositol Trispyrophosphate is effective at improving exercise performance, stamina, and energy levels through its effects on haemoglobin and oxygen release. Research has shown that ITPP effectively increases the ability for red blood cells to release oxygen into muscle tissues, thereby improving energy levels.[1] ITPP has long been used in horse racing to boost athletic performance, where it has been abused in the past.[2]

 

In animal studies, researchers found that ITPP, dissolved in water and taken orally, boosted exercise performance by an average of 30% in mice with severe heart failure (with a maximal increase of 63%).[3] The benefits on exercise performance were due to ITPP’s ability to improve the oxygen release capacity of red blood cells (by around 35% compared to control mice).[3]

 

The use of ITPP to improve physical energy and exercise performance in humans is understood by the World Doping Agency (WDA), and ITPP is a banned substance for many professional sports. Since 2014, methods have been developed to allow for its detection in human urine.[4]

 

Human studies into the effects of ITPP are still necessary in order to properly elucidate its overall effects. Apart from studies, anecdotal evidence suggests that the exercise performance-enhancing effects seen in horses and mice hold true for humans. Users on Reddit have noted improvements in cardiovascular exercise performance, as well as sexual vitality.[5]

 

2.2.Cognitive Effects

There is still a need for more studies on the potential effects of Myo-Inositol Trispyrophosphate on cognitive performance, memory, and alertness. ITPP is able to permeate membranes of red blood cells which supply oxygen to tissues, organs, muscles, and also the brain. By improving the ability to release oxygen into the brain, ITPP should – theoretically – also have the potential to improve cognitive performance.

Nevertheless, it is important to note that there are currently no clinical studies that have been published regarding the effects of ITPP on cognition. Limited anecdotal evidence does suggest the potential for improvements in alertness. As one user on Reddit has written:

 

My alertness definitely seems better with this substance — this could be related to some minor nasal breathing obstructions I’ve always had, seemingly related to childhood allergies. Note that none of the side effects of PDE4 inhibitors (another means of improving cerebral oxygenation) appear to be present with ITPP, and it lasts at least an order of magnitude longer. Worth trying, if you have the budget for it.[6]

 

This has been noted in its use to prevent hypoxia – a state of low oxygen, often associated with the development of disease.[7] Reducing hypoxia in the brain (improving oxygen levels) is associated with improvements in cognitive performance.[8]

 

2.3.Further Research and Applications

Myo-Inositol Trispyrophosphate is being used in research for preventing disease related to hypoxia (lack of oxygen) in cells. Low oxygen levels in tissues causes hypoxia-inducible genes (for example, VEGF and HIF-1 α) to switch on. This, in turn, results in a process called angiogenesis (the formation of ‘blood vessel-like structures’), which is associated with numerous diseases, including tumours, macular degeneration, retinopathies, and arthritis, and neurological disorders like Parkinson’s.[9] [10] [11]

 

ITPP may also be effective for reducing altitude sickness and improving exercise performance at high altitudes. Altitude sickness occurs due to the lack of oxygen present at low atmospheric pressure. Over time, the body generates more red blood cells to improve the efficacy of transporting limited oxygen through the body (acclimatization). If too little time is given for acclimatization, symptoms of altitude sickness develop, which can be fatal if left untreated. By increasing the disassociation of oxygen from red blood cells, ITPP may have the potential to help with acclimatization and preventing altitude sickness.[12]

 

itpp-energy-benefits

3. Safety and Toxicity

 

3.1.Side Effects

Potential side effects of ITPP have not yet been effectively studied, either in animals or in humans. At a low serving size, it appears to be relatively safe for use, provided that the correct cycling method is used (not more than three times per week). Some possible side effects may include dry skin, nausea, headaches, and upset stomach.

 

Animal studies have indicated a low toxicity rating for this product. However, it is not recommended to exceed the serving suggestion. No overdoses have been reported in humans, but the effects on red blood cells’ ability to ‘hold’ oxygen need to be considered. Large servings could potentially be dangerous to your health. Do not exceed the serving size.

 

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Content Updated On: July 5th 2019

 

 

Content By:

Written By: Tristan Pelser, B.Sc. in Molecular Biology

 

 

Citations and Supporting Literature

 

[1] Duarte , C. D., Greferath , R., Nicolau , C., & Lehn, J.-M. (2010). myo-Inositol Trispyrophosphate: A Novel Allosteric Effector of Hemoglobin with High Permeation Selectivity across the Red Blood Cell Plasma Membrane. ChemBioChem, 11(18), 2543–2548. doi:10.1002/cbic.201000499

[2] Lam, G., Zhao, S., Sandhu, J., Yi, R., Loganathan, D., & Morrissey, B. (2013). Detection ofmyo-inositol tris pyrophosphate (ITPP) in equine following an administration of ITPP. Drug Testing and Analysis, 6(3), 268–276. doi:10.1002/dta.147 

[3] Biolo, A., Greferath, R., Siwik, D. A., Qin, F., Valsky, E., Fylaktakidou, K. C., … Colucci, W. S. (2009). Enhanced exercise capacity in mice with severe heart failure treated with an allosteric effector of hemoglobin,myo-inositol trispyrophosphate. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(6), 1926–1929. doi:10.1073/pnas.0812381106


[4] Görgens, C., Guddat, S., Schänzer, W., & Thevis, M. (2014). Screening and confirmation of myo-inositol trispyrophosphate (ITPP) in human urine by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography high resolution / high accuracy mass spectrometry for doping control purposes. Drug Testing and Analysis, 6(11-12), 1102–1107. doi:10.1002/dta.1700 

[5] Reddit user: blase-prude (2018). ITPP: Myo-Inositol Trispyrophosphate? Reddit.com. [online] Available at:
https://www.reddit.com/r/Nootropics/comments/93ltoc/itpp_myoinositol_trispyrophosphate/

[6] Reddit user: __phoenix13 (2018). ITPP (Myo-Inositol TrisPyroPhosphate) for Alertness. Reddit.com. [online] Available at: https://www.reddit.com/r/Nootropics/comments/7kx0p2/itpp_myoinositol_trispyrophosphate_for_alertness/

[7] Raykov, Z., Grekova, S. P., Bour, G., Lehn, J. M., Giese, N. A., Nicolau, C., & Aprahamian, M. (2013). Myo-inositol trispyrophosphate-mediated hypoxia reversion controls pancreatic cancer in rodents and enhances gemcitabine efficacy. International Journal of Cancer, 134(11), 2572–2582. doi:10.1002/ijc.28598 

[8] Sohn, J.-H., Chung, S.-C., & Jang, E.-H. (2005). 30% Oxygen Inhalation Enhances Cognitive Performance through Robust Activation in the Brain. Journal of PHYSIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY and Applied Human Science, 24(1), 51–53. doi:10.2114/jpa.24.51

[9] Kieda, C., Greferath, R., Crola Da Silva, C., Fylaktakidou, K. C., Lehn, J.-M., & Nicolau, C. (2006). Suppression of hypoxia-induced HIF-1 and of angiogenesis in endothelial cells by myo-inositol trispyrophosphate-treated erythrocytes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 103(42), 15576–15581. doi:10.1073/pnas.0607109103

[10] Lund University. (2015). Formation of new blood vessels may explain intractable symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. ScienceDaily. [online] Available at: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/11/151104120805.htm

[11] Tran, L. B., Cao-Pham, T. T., Jordan, B. F., Deschoemaeker, S., Heyerick, A., & Gallez, B. (2019). Impact of myo-inositol trispyrophosphate (ITPP) on tumour oxygenation and response to irradiation in rodent tumour models. Journal of cellular and molecular medicine, 23(3), 1908–1916. doi:10.1111/jcmm.14092

[12] Aprahamian , M., Bour, G., Akladios, C. Y., Fylaktakidou , K., Greferath , R., Soler, L., … Nicolau, C. (2011). Myo-InositolTrisPyroPhosphate Treatment Leads to HIF-1α Suppression and Eradication of Early Hepatoma Tumors in Rats. ChemBioChem, 12(5), 777–783. doi:10.1002/cbic.201000619

 

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