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Choline Bitartrate

  • Supports healthy cognition & memory
  • Helps to support a healthy circulatory system
  • Essential nutrient for health and well-being

 

Choline Bitartrate is a salt form of Choline, an essential nutrient that is found in many meat, fish and vegetable products and is also produced endogenously in limited quantities. Benefits may include support for healthy cognitive performance, support of memory and learning, anti-inflammatory benefits, and support for a healthy circulatory system. This supplement has also been researched for its potential to improve general health and well-being. Some people note a stimulatory effect.

 

This supplement is best known as a precursor to acetylcholine, the ‘learning transmitter’. It was once suggested to have the potential to be used as a Nootropic supplement. The recommended serving size for this supplement is around 600 – 1200 mg, once to twice per day. It is not recommended to exceed the suggested serving size for this supplement. Large servings may cause headaches in some people.

 

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Choline Bitartrate reviews

 

liftmode's choline bitartrate reviews

 

  • Choline bitartrate is an essential nutrient found in many meat, fish and vegetable products as a constituent of lecithin

  • Benefits include increased memory function, anti-inflammation, promoting health and well-being, proper functioning of the body and increased cognitive performance
  • Suggested serving of has been recommended at 600 - 1200 mg, once to twice daily
  • Side effects may include headaches at larger serving sizes

 

Background

 

Choline is an essential nutrient, listed so by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) in 1998. It is found in a number of food sources, primarily in animal products but also in some plant foods. It is metabolised into a number of different compounds, but for most supplements users, the most important is acetylcholine, for which it is the immediate chemical precursor. This neurotransmitter is often referred to as the learning transmitter because of its functions on memory and cognitive performance. It is also important for muscle function.[1]

 

According to recent nutrition research, this supplement is important for its role in neurotransmitter synthesis, cell-membrane signalling (phospholipids), lipid transport (lipoproteins), and methyl-group metabolism (homocysteine reduction). Furthermore, it is a vital compound for S-Adenosylmethionine methylation biochemical reactions, of which at least 50 have been identified in mammals. Choline’s importance in the body seems to be of special significance during childhood and late adulthood, where deficiencies tend to cause problems. [2]

 

When found in natural sources, this natural compound (2-Hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethylethanaminium) is an important part of lecithin, which is a yellowish fatty substance, similar to egg yolk. Lecithin is found in animal organs, egg yolks, and also in a number of plant sources like soybeans. [3]

 

choline-bitartrate-for-learning

 

Choline Bitartrate Effects / Benefits

 

This essential nutrient plays a variety of vital roles in the body and is listed as an essential nutrient. It has a wide variety of benefits in the body, some of which are discussed below. It is often stated that most people’s dietary intake of this supplement is well below the recommended amount listed by the IOM.

 

As a result, some researchers advocate the intake of larger servings of Choline-rich foods, especially eggs, soya, and meat products to improve serum levels of the nutrient. However, many of these food sources (specifically eggs, meat, and dairy products) have potentially harmful effects on the body and should be avoided.[4] As such, healthier food sources are recommended like tofu, quinoa, broccoli, oats, oranges, and bananas. Choline bitartrate supplements are another great way to increase intake and improve overall levels in the body.[5]

 

1.     Support for Healthy Cognition

 

Several studies have pointed to this supplement’s ability to help support healthy cognition. In animal studies, researchers have shown that it can positively improve fetal brain development and protect the brain against stress and toxins. These protective effects appear to be most noticeable in the hippocampus. For kids, the hippocampus keeps developing until around 4 years of age, so its important that kids get enough of this nutrient in the period of time between pregnancy and 4 years. According to nutrition researchers, intake of essential nutrients for cognition during the fetal stages sets the stage for cognitive function later in life. [6]

 

Researchers have indicated that people who suffer from cognitive deficiencies and problems with memory tend to have reduced serum levels of this essential nutrient. Not only this, but otherwise healthy people who consume greater amounts of it may have improvements in cognitive performance compared to those who consume less. For example, a 2011 study with over 1300 people showed that an increased intake of this nutrient was correlated to better cognitive performance, overall. [7]

 

2.     Support for Learning and Memory

 

The most sought-after benefits of this supplement with regards to memory and learning are a result of its being a precursor to acetylcholine, the “learning transmitter”. After being absorbed into the bloodstream, the essential nutrient is converted into acetylcholine in the brain, where it is used to help transmit neurochemical signals between synapses. An increase in acetylcholine is correlated to an increase in signalling through the Central Nervous System (CNS), producing cognitive-enhancing (Nootropic-like) effects.[8]

 

The effects associated with an increased level of neurotransmitter in the brain are generally felt as an improvement in mental focus and attention, alertness, and an increased ability to retain information. Some people also talk about this dietary supplement’s ability to produce some energizing or stimulatory effects. [9]

 

3.     Support for a Healthy Circulatory System

 

One of the lesser known benefits of this supplement is its ability to help support a healthy circulatory system. This great dietary supplement is responsible for a number of important functions with regards to maintaining a healthy circulatory system. One of the key ways in which this works is through the methylation of homocysteine to a compound called methionine.[10]

 

Homocysteine is an amino acid derivative and is produced in the body from Cysteine, an amino acid found predominantly in meat-rich diets. High homocysteine levels in the blood are associated with an increased risk of heart disease and atherosclerosis. Through methylation of homocysteine to methionine, there is evidence that this dietary supplement may help to reduce homocysteine levels and help to protect and support a healthy circulatory system. [11]

 

4.     Anti-Inflammatory Effects

 

This supplement is also involved in a number of anti-inflammatory effects in the body. Specifically, the neurotransmitter anti-inflammatory pathway helps to reduce inflammation through actions on receptors in the brain. In fact, the neurotransmitter pathway of anti-inflammation has been used to produce a number of compounds that are aimed specifically at reducing inflammation. [12]

Furthermore, large-scale studies looking at populations and dietary intake have found that improved intake of this essential nutrient may help to reduce inflammation:

Findings from the ATTICA study indicated that subjects whose diets were rich in Choline and betaine had the lowest levels of several inflammatory markers, including C-reactive protein (CRP), homocysteine, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor” (Zeisel and da Costa, 2009). 2

 

5.     Research into Women's Vitality

 

Due to the reduced rate of oestrogen production in post-menopausal women, a diet that is low in this essential nutrient is actually associated with a higher risk for a number of health issues, especially for elderly women. The use of this supplement is currently being researched to see if it could have the potential to lower the risk of age-related issues relating to this nutrient in postmenopausal women, and even for women with a negative genetic predisposition towards these issues. [13]

 

choline-bitartrate-for-memory

Choline Bitartrate Recommended Usage

 

A typical serving size for this supplement is recommended at around 600 to 1200 mg, once to twice per day. This appears to be the best serving size for both men and women. Increasing the serving size above this level does not appear to improve effects and may result in headaches for some people. In fact, it is sometimes suggested to start with an even lower serving size of around 300 – 500 mg to see how the supplement affects you, before moving onto larger servings.

 

Important Metabolites and Similar Compounds

 

1.     Trimethylamine

 

Trimethylamine is a metabolite of this supplement and is absorbed through the colon wall to form trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO). This compound has been linked to the formation of atherosclerosis and heart disease in animal studies. This is one reason why it is not recommended to exceed the suggested serving size for this supplement. However, the animal studies used large servings substantially higher than what would be used by a person taking a supplement. [14]

 

2.     Lecithin

 

Lecithin is the name for yellow-brownish fatty substances found in animal and plant tissues, and often containing high concentrations of this essential nutrient. People sometimes confuse this supplement with lecithin, but they are not the same thing. Choline bitartrate is a constituent of lecithin.[15] 

 

3.     Trimethylglycine

 

Trimethylglycine (also known as Betaine) is a metabolite of Choline bitartrate. After ingestion of this supplement, the body converts some of it into Betaine. The conversion to trimethylglycine is what gives this supplement its ability to help support methylation-based biochemical reations in the body, and this is why it is an essential nutrient.[16]

 

4.     DMAE

 

DMAE is similar to this essential nutrient, but contains one less methyl group. It may have the potential to reduce build-up of beta-amlyoid, which is known to cause aging in skin. DMAE is the active component in Centrophenoxine.

 

Side Effects and Warnings

 

This supplement is usually very well-accepted by the body and is a natural precursor to acetylcholine, one of the most important neurotransmitters involved in functions including memory and proper muscle function. There are minimal reported side effects from supplementation at the recommended serving size.

 

As with any supplement, there is a very rare risk of an allergic reaction. Since it is an essential nutrient to the human body, allergic reactions are thought to be extremely unlikely. Should you experience any allergic symptoms, i.e. rash, itchiness, swollen eyes or throat, seek advice from a physician and stop using this supplement.

 

Large serving sizes may cause headaches in some people, and it is not recommended to exceed the serving size suggestion. WebMD lists this supplement as LIKELY SAFE for use by most adults. [17] Please speak to your doctor if you have any pre-existing medical issues or are pregnant or breast-feeding.

 

Conclusion

 

In summary, this is an essential nutrient as listed by the Institute of Medicine in 1998. Bitartrate refers to a salt form of the nutrient that is easy for the body to absorb and metabolize. This great dietary supplement has a number of powerful benefits in the body, including supporting healthy cognition, memory, and learning. It can also be used as a supplement to promote a healthy circulatory system and for its anti-inflammatory benefits.

 

It is the immediate precursor to acetylcholine, which is also known as the ‘learning transmitter’ and helps to allow signals to pass between synapses in the nervous system. The recommended serving size for this supplement is around 600 – 1200 mg, once or twice per day. Do not exceed the recommended serving size. This dietary supplement is considered highly safe for use but may cause headaches in some people, at large serving sizes.

 

choline-for-circulatory-system

References

 

 



[1]Acetylcholine”, PubChem, Open Chemistry Database, US National Library of Medicine, available online from https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/acetylcholine

[2] Zeisel SH, da Costa K-A. “Choline: An Essential Nutrient for Public Health.” Nutrition reviews. 2009;67(11):615-623.

[3]Choline Bitartrate”, PubChem, Open Chemistry Database, US National Library of Medicine, available online from https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/choline_bitartrate/

[4] Winston J Craig; “Health effects of vegan diets.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 89, Issue 5, 1 May 2009, Pages 1627S–1633S

[5]Choline”, VeganHealth.org, available online from https://veganhealth.org/choline/

[6] Zeisel SH. “The fetal origins of memory: the role of dietary choline in optimal brain development.” J Pediatr. 2006 Nov;149(5 Suppl):S131-6.

[7] Poly C, Massaro JM, Seshadri S, Wolf PA, Cho E, Krall E, Jacques PF, Au R. “The relation of dietary choline to cognitive performance and white-matter hyperintensity in the Framingham Offspring Cohort.” Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Dec;94(6):1584-91.

[8] Hasselmo ME. The Role of Acetylcholine in Learning and Memory. Current opinion in neurobiology. 2006;16(6):710-715.

[9]Choline”, Examine.com, available online from https://examine.com/supplements/choline/

[10] Zeisel SH. “Choline, Other Methyl-Donors and Epigenetics.” Nutrients. 2017;9(5):445 

[11] Olthof MR, Brink EJ, Katan MB, Verhoef P. “Choline supplemented as phosphatidyl-Choline decreases fasting and methionine-loading plasma homocysteine concentrations in healthy men.” Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Jul;82(1):111-7.

[12] Rosas-Ballina M, Tracey KJ. “Cholinergic control of inflammation.” Journal of internal medicine. 2009;265(6):663-679.

[13] KA da Costa et al., “Dietary Choline requirements of women: effects of estrogen and genetic variationAm. J. Clin. Nutr. November 2010, vol. 92, no. 5, 1113-1119

[14] Wang Z et al., "Gut flora metabolism of phosphatidylcholine promotes cardiovascular disease.Nature. 2011 Apr 7;472(7341):57-63. 

[15] "Soy Lecithin", Examine.com, available online from https://examine.com/supplements/soy-lecithin/ 

[16] "Trimethylglycine", Examine.com, available online from https://examine.com/supplements/trimethylglycine/

[17]Choline bitartrate”, WebMD.com, available online from https://www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-436-choline.aspx

 

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