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TUDCA

TUDCA (tauroursodeoxycholic acid) is an important bile salt supplement that helps with emulsifying fats in the intestines and supports a healthy flow of bile from the liver into the intestines. TUDCA has a number of benefits for human health and is especially good for liver detox and liver support.

 

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TUDCA Sodium Reviews

 

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At a Quick Glance

 

Also Known As

TUDCA Sodium
Tauroursodeoxycholic acid
Taurine-UDCA

How It Works

Improves the flow of bile from the liver to the gut
Cytoprotective and neuroprotective effects
Improves liver enzymes
Supports healthy blood lipid profile
Supports healthy metabolism and thyroid

Is Used For

Gut health
Detoxifying the liver
Supporting a healthy liver
Circulatory health

Medical Disclaimer

This product is not intended to treat, diagnose, or cure any disease or ailment. Please read and fully understand the potential adverse effects before using this product. These statements have not been reviewed by the FDA. Please consult your doctor before using any supplements, especially if you have any medical conditions.

 

 

 

Benefits and Effects on Humans

Based on Available Scientific Research and Anecdotal Evidence

 

 

Used For: Efficacy
Improving Bile Flow From the Liver ★★★★★
Supporting a Healthy Liver ★★★★★
Supporting a Healthy Gut ★★★★★
Promoting a Healthy Metabolism ★★★★
Regulating Blood Lipid Levels ★★★★
Supporting a Healthy Circulatory System ★★★★
Neuroprotective and Cytoprotective Effects ★★★
Supporting a Healthy Thyroid Gland ★★★
Improved Energy Levels ★★★

  

How to Use

Recommended Serving Size, Intervals, Cycling, Forms Available, and Application

 

Serving Size

The typical serving size for TUDCA sodium supplement is between 250 – 750 mg daily. Most studies tend to use a serving size of around 500 mg per day. It is not recommended to exceed the serving suggestion for this supplement. Keep out of reach of children. Store in cool, dark place.

 

Application

TUDCA is a water-soluble bile salt. It can be dissolved in a glass of juice or water and washed drunk with a slightly salty and bitter taste. Alternatively, measure out the correct serving size in a micro scoop, tap the powder into your mouth, and wash down with a glass of water or juice. 

Evidence-Based Research

 

 

 

1. Summary

TUDCA sodium (also known as tauroursodeoxycholic acid) is a water-soluble bile salt supplement produced in the liver. It has several important functions in maintaining a healthy body –, especially for gut and liver health.[1] TUDCA taken as supplement has numerous benefits including supporting a healthy gut microbiome, a healthy bile duct, reducing liver enzymes and liver stress, cytoprotective and neuroprotective effects, and support for a healthy circulatory system, among others.

In the intestine, TUDCA help to emulsify fats, which is important for their metabolism.[2] Too little bile in the intestine means that dietary fats are not metabolized properly, and the toxins from bile may be building up in the liver. This can cause cholestasis and biliary cirrhosis, both of which can be seriously dangerous to your health. TUDCA minimizes the negative effects of bile toxins in the liver while strengthening the bile duct, improving bile flow, and supporting a strong, healthy gut.[3]

The recommended serving size for TUDCA sodium is 250 – 750 mg daily. It can be taken dissolved in water or juice. Side effects are almost entirely unheard of in human studies to-date. In one study using large servings of TUDCA, a few participants reported mild diarrhoea. Nevertheless, it is not recommended to exceed the serving size for this supplement. If you have any underlying medical conditions, please speak to your doctor before using any supplements.

tauroursodeoxycholic acid for gut health

 

2. TUDCA and Bile Acid Clearance for Cholestasis and Cirrhosis

Bile is a fluid produced in the liver of most vertebrate animals, that helps with the digestion of fats in the small intestine. Bile also contains toxic substances that are metabolised in the liver. When it gets to the intestines, bile allows these toxins to be excreted. When there are problems with the bile duct and bile can’t flow properly into the intestines, fats do not get metabolised properly, and the liver can be seriously damaged (called biliary liver cirrhosis).[4]

In the past, TUDCA has been used to prevent bile acid stoppages (called cholestasis).[5] This painful condition occurs when there is a reduction in the ability of bile to flow from the liver into the intestines. Common symptoms include intense itching of the skin, yellow eyes, dark stool and urine, fatigue, and loss of appetite. Studies have found that TUDCA is highly effective at improving the flow of bile out of the liver, through the bile duct, and into the intestines.

A number of studies have also indicated that TUDCA may be effective at supporting the liver and has been used in studies on cirrhosis. For example, positive results were seen with a serving size of 500 mg TUDCA, in 23 patients with biliary cirrhosis.[6] Similar results were seen in another study, where ursodeoxycholic acid content improved, liver enzymes reduced significantly, and cholesterol levels regulated.[7] These studies have been replicated numerous times around the world, always with positive results on bile flow, liver enzymes, liver function, and blood lipids.[8] [9]

Disclaimer: This product is not intended to treat, diagnose, or cure any disease or ailment. If you believe that you or somebody you know has cholestasis or cirrhosis, it is imperative that you seek qualified medical assistance as soon as possible.

 

3. Human Effects

 

3.1.Supports a Healthy Gut

One of the key benefits of TUDCA is its ability to support a healthy gut. First, TUDCA is used in the regulation of the gut – especially for the flow of bile salts from the liver into the intestines.[10] Bile is very important for the functioning of the gut bacteria. Not enough quality bile in the intestines means gut bacteria that aren’t working properly. Studies have found that TUDCA can improve bile flow by up to 250%.[11]

Further, TUDCA can help to restore the function of the bacteria in your gut, which helps to improve digestion and mood.[12] A better gut microbiome also means improved insulin response.[13] Finally, TUDCA helps to reduce inflammation in the gut [14], which is why it is well known for its potential use in ulcerative colitis.[15]

 

Key benefits:

  • Improves bile flow from the liver to the gut
  • Supports healthy gut bacteria
  • Reduces gut inflammation
  • Reduces cell death in the gut (cytoprotective)

 

3.2.Liver Detox and Liver Support

Another top benefit of TUDCA is its ability to support a healthy liver. By improving the flow of bile from the liver into the gut, TUDCA helps to detox the liver and allow liver cells to regenerate.[11] Bile salts produced by the liver are used to remove toxins and free radicals from the liver. When bile doesn’t flow properly from the liver, these toxins remain inside the liver, causing damage. For example, free radicals often attack the mitochondria of liver cells. TUDCA not only improves bile flow out of the liver, but also protects the mitochondria from damage.[16]

 

What’s more, TUDCA sodium helps to reduce liver enzymes.[17] When the liver is stressed, it significantly increases enzyme production, to help destroy toxins. Excessive enzymes can be damaging, and TUDCA helps to protect against this.[18] Finally, TUDCA helps to protect the bile duct by secreting ATP (the body’s energy molecule) into bile.[19]

 

ATP gives the bile duct cells extra protection against the toxins and salts in bile, as it flows through the duct. This helps to improve the strength of the bile duct.[20] In fact, TUDCA is so effective at supporting a healthy liver that it has been studied for potential use in protecting against liver cirrhosis (scarring of the liver from alcohol abuse, disease, or toxins).[21] Recent research also suggests that TUDCA improves the rate of production of new liver cells (hepatocytes).[22]

 

Key benefits:

  • Improves bile flow, protecting the liver from stress
  • Protects the mitochondria of liver cells
  • Reduces liver enzymes
  • Improves ATP levels in bile, protecting and strengthening the bile duct
  • Boosts synthesis of new liver cells

 

bile salt supplements for a heathy liver

 

3.3.Supports a Healthy Glucose Metabolism

Several studies have examined the benefits of TUDCA on glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity. In one recent study, researchers found that TUDCA helps to protect the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in rat cells, which had remarkable effects on the rats, including normalizing blood sugar levels, restoring insulin sensitivity, improving liver function, and improving the efficacy of insulin in the liver, muscle, and fatty tissues.[23] A later study, in humans, found similar effects – although the improvements were more remarkable in muscle and liver rather than fatty tissue.[24]

 

In all mammals, the liver is the primary organ where used insulin is degraded. Researchers have found that problems in the liver with degrading insulin are key factors in causing disruption of insulin secretion and obesity-related hyperinsulinemia.[25] A recent study found that 15 consecutive days of TUDCA use helped to restore insulin degradation in the liver to normal levels, and improved insulin clearance, in obese mice.[26] In the liver, TUDCA helps to improve insulin signalling and supports insulin clearance in models of hyperinsulinemia.[27]

 

Key benefits:

  • Protects the ER to support healthy glucose levels
  • Helps improve insulin clearance in the liver
  • Improves insulin signalling and regulates insulin sensitivity in animal models
  • Helps to improve obesity-related hyperinsulinemia

 

 

3.4.Promotes a Healthy Circulatory System

TUDCA helps to support a healthy circulatory system in a number of ways. For example, TUDCA is an effective antioxidant – reduces levels of dangerous free-radicals in the body and protecting your circulatory system against toxic free-radicals.[28] A study in human participants found that TUDCA supplementation decreased the saturation of cholesterol in bile, and increased levels of ursodeoxycholic acid – indicating that TUDCA may be effective in supporting healthy blood lipid concentrations.[29]

 

Further studies found that TUDCA helps to protect endothelial cells against the damaging effects of high glucose concentrations.[30] It is well-known that hyperglycemia is a predeterminant for cardiovascular disease, and that the link between the two is likely due to the destructive effects of high glucose concentrations on endothelial cells. So, evidence suggests that TUDCA is great for protecting the circulatory system![31] Finally, researchers found that TUDCA helped to protect against cardiac cell death after myocardial infarction (heart attack) in rats – further evidence that it is useful in supporting a healthy circulatory system.[32]

 

Key benefits:

  • Powerful antioxidant: Protects against free-radicals and oxidative stress
  • Helps to support healthy blood lipid levels
  • Protects endothelial cells against high glucose concentrations
  • Cardioprotective support

 

 

3.5.Benefits the Thyroid Gland

The thyroid gland is a small gland found at the back of the throat and is a vital part of the endocrine system. The thyroid gland helps to produce, store, and release hormones in the body and regulates essential physiological functions like breathing, heart rate, body weight, muscle function, menstrual cycles, body temperature, cholesterol levels, and many more.

 

An important function of TUDCA is to support the thyroid’s ability to regulate energy expenditure in the body. For example, brown adipose tissue helps to ‘switch on’ the thyroid gland, and one study found that TUDCA can double the levels of brown adipose tissue.[33] This means that TUDCA supports a healthy metabolism by increasing the amount of energy in the body.

 

Key benefits:

  • Helps to support a healthy thyroid
  • Improves thyroid activation and boosts energy use in the body

 

 

3.6.Cytoprotective and Neuroprotective Benefits

TUDCA sodium is an effective cytoprotective and neuroprotective supplement (meaning that it protects cells in your body, as well as helping to support a healthy brain). As we have already seen, TUDCA is effective at protecting the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in cells, which has benefits on energy and the cardiovascular system.[34] Scientists around the world have conducted many more studies. For example, TUDCA helps to protect photoreceptor cells in the retina,[35] and a study on patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis further indicated its potential for cytoprotective and neuroprotective benefits.[36]

 

In a recent study, researchers found that TUDCA is also effective at protecting retinal ganglion cells against damage (cells in the optic nerve that are important for eyesight).[37] Studies on animals with models of Alzheimer’s disease showed beneficial effects in protecting against cell death.[38] Finally, a review paper found that TUDCA is an effective anti-inflammatory in the brain, helping to protect against the negative effects of stress and toxins.[39]

 

Key benefits:

  • Helps to protect cells against toxins
  • May help support healthy eyesight
  • Protects nerve cells in the brain

 

4. Safety and Toxicity

 

4.1.Side Effects

There have been numerous studies on the effects of TUDCA in humans, all of which show that this substance is very well tolerated, with hardly any side effects being reported. In one study, 23 patients with liver cirrhosis received 750 mg of TUDCA daily, for a period of six months. No adverse effects were reported by the group.[40] In some studies on larger servings in the range of 1’000 – 1’500 mg daily, diarrhoea was reported by a small segment of the participants.[41]

 

Some information from dubious sources online suggests that TUDCA may be dangerous to take with alcohol. Research suggests otherwise. In one study, researchers found that TUDCA offered a mild protective effect against the hepatotoxic effects of ethanol poisoning, suggesting that it is safe to take with alcohol.[42] Nevertheless, alcohol will almost certainly decrease the positive effects of TUDCA, so they are not recommended to take together.

 

TUDCA does not appear to have negative effects on pregnant women.[43] Nevertheless, it is always recommended to consult with your doctor before using supplements if you are pregnant or have any underlying medical disorder.

 

Do not exceed the recommended serving size. Keep out of reach of children.

 

bile salt for a heathy lifestyle

 

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Our content is written using meticulous research methods and claims are backed by links to scientific references, wherever possible. The author and editors of Liftmode's Research Team have strong academic backgrounds in microbiology, physiology, and biochemistry.

Content Updated On: June 1st, 2019

 

 

Content By:

Written By: Tristan Pelser, B.Sc. in Molecular Biology

 

Citations and Supporting Literature

 

[1] Vang, S., Longley, K., Steer, C. J., & Low, W. C. (2014). The Unexpected Uses of Urso- and Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid in the Treatment of Non-liver Diseases. Global advances in health and medicine, 3(3), 58–69. doi:10.7453/gahmj.2014.017

[2] Vettorazzi, J. F., Kurauti, M. A., Soares, G. M., Borck, P. C., Ferreira, S. M., Branco, R., … Carneiro, E. M. (2017). Bile acid TUDCA improves insulin clearance by increasing the expression of insulin-degrading enzyme in the liver of obese mice. Scientific reports, 7(1), 14876. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-13974-0

[3] Angelico, M., Del Vecchio, C., & Nistri, A. (1995). Effect of tauroursodeoxycholic acid on serum liver enzyme and serum lipid levels in patients with chronic active hepatitis. Current Therapeutic Research, 56(6), 626–634. doi:10.1016/0011-393x(95)85055-4

[4] University Hospital Heidelberg. (2008, October 27). Toxic Bile Damages The Liver. ScienceDaily. Retrieved June 20, 2019

[5] Baiocchi, L., Tisone, G., Russo, M. A., Longhi, C., Palmieri, G., Volpe, A., … Angelico, M. (2008). TUDCA prevents cholestasis and canalicular damage induced by ischemia-reperfusion injury in the rat, modulating PKCezrin pathway. Transplant International, 21(8), 792–800. doi:10.1111/j.1432-2277.2008.00682.x

[6] Larghi, A., Crosignani, A., Battezzati, P. M., De Valle, G., Allocca, M., Invernizzi, P., Zuin, M., Podda, M. (1997) Ursodeoxycholic and tauro-ursodeoxycholic acids for the treatment of primary biliary cirrhosis: a pilot crossover study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 11(2):409-14. PubMed PMID: 9146783.

[7] Crosignani, A., Battezzati, P. M., Setchell, K. D., Invernizzi, P., Covini, G., Zuin, M., Podda, M. (1996) Tauroursodeoxycholic acid for treatment of primary biliary cirrhosis. A dose-response study. Dig Dis Sci. 41(4):809-15. PubMed PMID: 8674405.

[8] Ma, H., Zeng, M., Han, Y., Yan, H., Tang, H., Sheng, J., … Jia, J. (). A multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial comparing the efficacy and safety of TUDCA and UDCA in Chinese patients with primary biliary cholangitis. Medicine, 95(47), e5391. doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000005391

[9] Furio, L., Tomaiuolo, P., Gatta, R., Tomaiuolo, M., Talarico, S., Beverelli, V., & Prencipe, D. (1994). Treatment of virus-associated liver cirrhosis with tauroursodeoxycholic acid: Evaluation of cytolysis and cholestasis indexes and selected immunologic variables. Current Therapeutic Research, 55(11), 1355–1362. doi:10.1016/s0011-393x(05)80320-0

[10] Beuers, U., Nathanson, M. H., Isales, C. M., & Boyer, J. L. (1993). Tauroursodeoxycholic acid stimulates hepatocellular exocytosis and mobilizes extracellular Ca++ mechanisms defective in cholestasis. The Journal of clinical investigation, 92(6), 2984–2993. doi:10.1172/JCI116921

[11] Bodewes, F. A. J. A., Wouthuyzen-Bakker, M., Bijvelds, M. J., Havinga, R., de Jonge, H. R., & Verkade, H. J. (2012). Ursodeoxycholate modulates bile flow and bile salt pool independently from the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (Cftr) in mice. American Journal of Physiology-Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, 302(9), G1035–G1042. doi:10.1152/ajpgi.00258.2011

[12] Hegyi, P., Maléth, J., Walters, J. R., Hofmann, A. F., & Keely, S. J. (2018). Guts and Gall: Bile Acids in Regulation of Intestinal Epithelial Function in Health and Disease. Physiological Reviews, 98(4), 1983–2023. doi:10.1152/physrev.00054.2017

[13] Sun, L., Xie, C., Wang, G., Wu, Y., Wu, Q., Wang, X., … Jiang, C. (2018). Gut microbiota and intestinal FXR mediate the clinical benefits of metformin. Nature medicine, 24(12), 1919–1929. doi:10.1038/s41591-018-0222-4

[14] Wang, W., Zhao, J., Gui, W., Sun, D., Dai, H., Xiao, L., … Hou, X. (2018). Tauroursodeoxycholic acid inhibits intestinal inflammation and barrier disruption in mice with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. British Journal of Pharmacology, 175(3), 469–484. doi:10.1111/bph.14095

[15] Laukens, D., Devisscher, L., Van den Bossche, L., Hindryckx, P., Vandenbroucke, R. E., Vandewynckel, Y.-P., … De Vos, M. (2014). Tauroursodeoxycholic acid inhibits experimental colitis by preventing early intestinal epithelial cell death. Laboratory Investigation, 94(12), 1419–1430. doi:10.1038/labinvest.2014.117

[16] Colell, A. (2001). Tauroursodeoxycholic acid protects hepatocytes from ethanol-fed rats against tumor necrosis factor–induced cell death by replenishing mitochondrial glutathione. Hepatology, 34(5), 964–971. doi:10.1053/jhep.2001.28510

[17] Portincasa, P., Palmieri, V., Doronzo, F., Vendemiale, G., Altomare, E., Sabbà, C., … Albano, O. (1993). Effect of tauroursodeoxycholic acid on serum liver enzymes and dyspeptic symptoms in patients with chronic active hepatitis. Current Therapeutic Research, 53(5), 521–532. doi:10.1016/s0011-393x(05)80659-9 

[18] Hou, Y., Yang, H., Cui, Z., Tai, X., Chu, Y., & Guo, X. (2017). Tauroursodeoxycholic acid attenuates endoplasmic reticulum stress and protects the liver from chronic intermittent hypoxia-induced injury. Experimental and therapeutic medicine, 14(3), 2461–2468. doi:10.3892/etm.2017.4804

[19] Nathanson, M. H., Burgstahler, A. D., Masyuk, A., & Larusso, N. F. (2001). Stimulation of ATP secretion in the liver by therapeutic bile acids. The Biochemical journal, 358(Pt 1), 1–5. doi:10.1042/0264-6021:3580001

[20] Marzioni, M., Francis, H., Benedetti, A., Ueno, Y., Fava, G., Venter, J., … Glaser, S. (2006). Ca2+-dependent cytoprotective effects of ursodeoxycholic and tauroursodeoxycholic acid on the biliary epithelium in a rat model of cholestasis and loss of bile ducts. The American journal of pathology, 168(2), 398–409. doi:10.2353/ajpath.2006.050126

[21] Pan, X., Zhao, L., Li, L., Li, A., Ye, J., Yang, L., … Hou, X. (2013). Efficacy and safety of tauroursodeoxycholic acid in the treatment of liver cirrhosis: A double-blind randomized controlled trial. Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology [Medical Sciences], 33(2), 189–194. doi:10.1007/s11596-013-1095-x

[22] Panella, C., Ierardi, E., De Marco, M. F., Barone, M., Guglielmi, F. W., Polimeno, L., Francavilla, A. (1995) Does tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) treatment increase hepatocyte proliferation in patients with chronic liver disease? Ital J Gastroenterol, 27(5):256-8. PubMed PMID: 8541578.

[23] Ozcan, U., Yilmaz, E., Ozcan, L., Furuhashi, M., Vaillancourt, E., Smith, R. O., … Hotamisligil, G. S. (2006). Chemical chaperones reduce ER stress and restore glucose homeostasis in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 313(5790), 1137–1140. doi:10.1126/science.1128294

[24] Kars, M., Yang, L., Gregor, M. F., Mohammed, B. S., Pietka, T. A., Finck, B. N., … Klein, S. (2010). Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid may improve liver and muscle but not adipose tissue insulin sensitivity in obese men and women. Diabetes, 59(8), 1899–1905. doi:10.2337/db10-0308

[25] Czech M. P. (2017). Insulin action and resistance in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Nature medicine, 23(7), 804–814. doi:10.1038/nm.4350

[26] Vettorazzi, J. F., Kurauti, M. A., Soares, G. M., Borck, P. C., Ferreira, S. M., Branco, R., … Carneiro, E. M. (2017). Bile acid TUDCA improves insulin clearance by increasing the expression of insulin-degrading enzyme in the liver of obese mice. Scientific reports, 7(1), 14876. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-13974-0

[27] Bronczek, G. A., Vettorazzi, J. F., Soares, G. M., Kurauti, M. A., Santos, C., Bonfim, M. F., … Costa Júnior, J. M. (2019). The Bile Acid TUDCA Improves Beta-Cell Mass and Reduces Insulin Degradation in Mice With Early-Stage of Type-1 Diabetes. Frontiers in physiology, 10, 561. doi:10.3389/fphys.2019.00561

[28] Rosa, A. I., Fonseca, I., Nunes, M. J., Moreira, S., Rodrigues, E., Carvalho, A. N., … Castro-Caldas, M. (2017). Novel insights into the antioxidant role of tauroursodeoxycholic acid in experimental models of Parkinson’s disease. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) – Molecular Basis of Disease, 1863(9), 2171–2181. doi:10.1016/j.bbadis.2017.06.004

[29] Muraca, M., Vilei, M. T., Cianci, V., Liu, X. T. (1995) Effect of tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) on biliary lipid composition. Ital J Gastroenterol. 27(8):439-40. PubMed PMID: 8775471.

[30] Walsh, L. K., Restaino, R. M., Neuringer, M., Manrique, C., & Padilla, J. (2016). Administration of tauroursodeoxycholic acid prevents endothelial dysfunction caused by an oral glucose load. Clinical science (London, England: 1979), 130(21), 1881–1888. doi:10.1042/CS20160501

[31] Vandewynckel, Y. P., Laukens, D., Devisscher, L., Paridaens, A., Bogaerts, E., Verhelst, X., … Van Vlierberghe, H. (). Tauroursodeoxycholic acid dampens oncogenic apoptosis induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress during hepatocarcinogen exposure. Oncotarget, 6(29), 28011–28025. doi:10.18632/oncotarget.4377

[32] Rivard, A. L., Steer, C. J., Kren, B. T., Rodrigues, C. M. P., Castro, R. E., Bianco, R. W., & Low, W. C. (2007). Administration of Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid (TUDCA) Reduces Apoptosis Following Myocardial Infarction in Rat. The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 35(02), 279–295. doi:10.1142/s0192415x07004813

[33] da-Silva, W. S., Ribich, S., Arrojo e Drigo, R., Castillo, M., Patti, M. E., & Bianco, A. C. (2011). The chemical chaperones tauroursodeoxycholic and 4-phenylbutyric acid accelerate thyroid hormone activation and energy expenditure. FEBS letters, 585(3), 539–544. doi:10.1016/j.febslet.2010.12.044

[34] Gavin, J., Quilty, F., Majer, F., Gilsenan, G., Byrne, A. M., Long, A., … Gilmer, J. F. (2016). A fluorescent analogue of tauroursodeoxycholic acid reduces ER stress and is cytoprotective. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 26(21), 5369–5372. doi:10.1016/j.bmcl.2016.06.059

[35] Mantopoulos, D., Murakami, Y., Comander, J., Thanos, A., Roh, M., Miller, J. W., & Vavvas, D. G. (). Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) protects photoreceptors from cell death after experimental retinal detachment. PloS one, 6(9), e24245. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0024245

[36] Elia, A. E., Lalli, S., Monsurrò, M. R., Sagnelli, A., Taiello, A. C., Reggiori, B., … Albanese, A. (2016). Tauroursodeoxycholic acid in the treatment of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. European journal of neurology23(1), 45–52. doi:10.1111/ene.12664

[37] Gómez-Vicente, V., Lax, P., Fernández-Sánchez, L., Rondón, N., Esquiva, G., Germain, F., … Cuenca, N. (2015). Neuroprotective Effect of Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid on N-Methyl-D-Aspartate-Induced Retinal Ganglion Cell Degeneration. PloS one, 10(9), e0137826. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0137826

[38] Nunes, A. F., Amaral, J. D., Lo, A. C., Fonseca, M. B., Viana, R. J. S., Callaerts-Vegh, Z., … Rodrigues, C. M. P. (2012). TUDCA, a Bile Acid, Attenuates Amyloid Precursor Protein Processing and Amyloid-β Deposition in APP/PS1 Mice. Molecular Neurobiology, 45(3), 440–454. doi:10.1007/s12035-012-8256-y

[39] Romero-Ramírez, L., Nieto-Sampedro, M., & Yanguas-Casás, N. (2017). Tauroursodeoxycholic acid: more than just a neuroprotective bile conjugate. Neural regeneration research, 12(1), 62–63. doi:10.4103/1673-5374.198979

[40] Pan, X., Zhao, L., Li, L., Li, A., Ye, J., Yang, L., … Hou, X. (2013). Efficacy and safety of tauroursodeoxycholic acid in the treatment of liver cirrhosis: A double-blind randomized controlled trial. Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology [Medical Sciences], 33(2), 189–194. doi:10.1007/s11596-013-1095-x 

[41] Crosignani, A., Battezzati, P. M., Setchell, K. D., Invernizzi, P., Covini, G., Zuin, M., Podda, M.. (1996). Tauroursodeoxycholic acid for treatment of primary biliary cirrhosis. A dose-response study. Dig Dis Sci. 41(4):809-15. PubMed PMID: 8674405.

[42] Henzel, K., Thorborg, C., Hofmann, M., Zimmer, G., & Leuschner, U. (2004). Toxicity of ethanol and acetaldehyde in hepatocytes treated with ursodeoxycholic or tauroursodeoxycholic acid. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) – Molecular Cell Research, 1644(1), 37–45. doi:10.1016/j.bbamcr.2003.10.017

[43] Li, J., Huo, X., Cao, Y. F., Li, S. N., Du, Z., Shao, P., … Yang, X. (). Bile acid metabolites in early pregnancy and risk of gestational diabetes in Chinese women: A nested case-control study. EBioMedicine, 35, 317–324. doi:10.1016/j.ebiom.2018.08.015

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