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Hordenine

  • Improves cognitive function
  • Mood-lift
  • Increases energy levels

 

Hordenine is a natural chemical found in the Bitter Orange that works primarily as an MAO-B substrate as well as a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor to produce stimulant effects. Very few human studies have been done but doses are generally around 30 – 50 mg three times daily. Benefits of Hordenine are to produce a mild mood-lift by increasing dopamine and norepinephrine levels as well as improving focus and energy and prolonging the effects of other Nootropic stimulants like Phenylethylamine. Side effects of Hordenine are very rare but high doses may include dizziness, headaches, increased heart rate and anxiety

 

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Hordenine reviews

 

I have been using Hordenine with PEA, and it's not just good- INCREDIBLE. It increases your wellbeing, slightly increases your sense of pleasure, and SERIOUSLY stimulates you. Oh, and did I forget to mention that weight lifters can lift more after using PEA and Hordenine!? If you're having a lazy morning, this combination works wonders as you can focus like no other. It's not addictive either. Hordenine by itself didn't do anything to me, but others would disagree. Also, the little scooper they give you with the package is super useful, as it gives you a good estimate of how much Hordenine you've scooped. I noticed that more Hordenine with the PEA makes the experience last for longer, while using only a little amount will make the experience shorter in duration.” – I feel awesome!, user review on LiftMode.com

 

Hordenine product reviews 

 

  • Hordenine is a natural chemical found in the Bitter Orange that works primarily as an MAO-B substrate as well as a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor to produce stimulant effects

 

  • Very few human studies have been done but doses are generally around 30mg three times daily

 

  • Produces a mood-lift by increasing dopamine levels as well as improving focus and energy and prolonging the effects of other Nootropic stimulants like phenylethylamine

 

  • Side effects of hordenine are very rare but high doses may include dizziness, headaches, increased heart rate and anxiety

 

Background

 

Hordenine is a natural amino-acid related chemical (N,N-dimethyltyramine) that occurs in a number of plant species, including the Bitter Orange which also contains a number of related biogenic amines such as Synephrine.  Hordenine derives its name from the Latin nomenclature for barley (Hordeum sp.), where it occurs in significant amounts (especially in barley sprouts and seedlings).  Hordenine works predominantly as an MAO-B substrate, and thereby prevents the breakdown of dopamine, norepinephrine, and related amines like Phenylethylamine (PEA).  PEA is commonly used as an energy boosting and potentially Nootropic supplement, and PEA is often stacked with Hordenine to produce longer-lasting effects.

Hordenine has been shown to act as a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, and may also act as a mild adrenergic agonist and help to stimulate the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) which is involved in the ‘fight or flight’ response – thus acting as a stimulant and alertness promoter.  Hordenine has been used as a synergistic compound with coffee and caffeine, to produce a longer lasting, smoother stimulating effect.  For Nootropic purposes, Hordenine is commonly taken to help improve cognitive function and to increase mood and energy levels.[1]  Hordenine can also be taken as a preworkout supplement to boost physical energy and increase metabolic output, and as a weight regulating supplement, synergistic when combined in a stack with other weight-reducing supplements.

 

Hordenine effects / benefits

 

Studies on animals have shown that Hordenine HCL acts both as an MAO-B substrate as well as a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. These two qualities bestow Hordenine with its stimulant effects as well as allowing it to lengthen the effects of other stimulants, especially PEA, which is commonly taken as a Nootropic, energy boosting and weight loss promoting supplement.[2]

 

MAO-B Substrate – mood lift

MAO inhibitors (MAOIs) are used specifically in the treatment of depression and also for diseases like Parkinson’s disease and conditions like social phobia, anxiety and atypical depression.

The monoamine oxide enzyme is partially responsible for the metabolic breakdown of catecholamines: dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. Irregular MAO levels are associated with a number of psychological disorders including depression.

Dopamine is one of the brain’s natural ‘feel-good’ chemicals and helps to regulate mood and emotions. It is commonly known as the ‘pleasure’ hormone and is associated with falling in love and addictions. Doing things that we like improves dopamine levels; and when we feel stressed or low, our dopamine levels are generally lower than normal. One of the functions of Hordenine is to prevent the breakdown of dopamine in the brain, by blocking the MAO-B enzyme.[3]

 

Norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor – increased focus and energy

Norepinephrine is a natural ‘stress-hormone’ involved in the ‘fight-or-flight’ system. It acts both as a hormone and as a neurotransmitter, and is vital to everyday life and proper health.

By acting as a ‘fight-or-flight’ hormone, norepinephrine is able to increase heart rate, metabolism and increase blood-flow to skeletal muscles. Hordenine is able to prevent the breakdown of norepinephrine and this is how it gives us a sustained increase in energy. It should be known that norepinephrine also increases blood pressure.

Norepinephrine boosting agents are often used for treatment of ADHD, depression and hypotension.

People with ADHD have been found to have irregular to low norepinephrine levels, which is why almost all of the chemicals prescribed for the treatment of ADD / ADHD help to maintain levels of norepinephrine. By maintaining healthy levels of norepinephrine, Hordenine is able to support mental focus and clarity.[4]

 

Use with Phenylethylamine (PEA)

Hordenine HCL is often taken in conjunction with Phenylethylamine (PEA) to lengthen the effects of PEA. Hordenine may not be as effective as PEA in releasing catecholamines (dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine) but it can act to sustain the effects of PEA, which normally produces only a short-term energy increase and mood-lift.

PEA is a modulator of catecholamine emissions in the brain. It acts to release dopamine and norepinephrine and thereby acts as a stimulant and mood-enhancer as well as an appetite suppressor. It is also commonly known as the ‘love drug’ and is found in high levels in especially dark chocolate (i.e pure cocoa). A recent study found that healthy men who had undergone an intense 60 minute exercise programme had increased levels of PEA and it is thought to be part of what causes the common post-workout euphoria.[5]

While PEA releases the catecholamines, its effects are very short-lived due to their fast breakdown; so Hordenine is great because it allows these neurotransmitters to have a longer life in the brain by inhibiting MAO-B function.

 

No ‘cheese-effect’

MAOIs have been associated with a life-threatening side effect known as the ‘cheese-effect’ which results in a hypertensive crisis. MAOIs generally increase blood pressure and overdose or using in combination with other stimulants has been seen to produce a hypertensive crisis, which be very dangerous, even life-threatening. However, recent studies have shown that MAO-B inhibitors are much safer in this regard than MAO-A inhibitors.[6].

 

Hordenine recommended usage

 

There have been a number of animal studies on Hordenine but no human studies to date, and therefore the recommended dosage is hard to come by.

Generally, it is recommended to start at around 30-50mg, two to three times daily.  Reports of consumption up to 100mg, two to three times daily, suggest that these amounts are well tolerated by some.

 

Hordenine side effects and warnings

 

Hordenine appears to be very safe when used as a supplement. However, it should not be taken in conjunction with other MAOIs and may accentuate both the positive and side effects of other stimulants.  In Nootropic use, Hordenine is commonly taken along with Phenylethylamine (PEA) to lengthen PEA’s stimulant effects, and this generally does not result in negative outcomes if the serving sizes are carefully calibrated. However, care should be taken when deciding to use Hordenine especially if you are on any kind of prescription medication, specifically any medication that affects catecholamine release or any other stimulant.

High doses may cause a few side effects including headaches, dizziness, anxiety, rapid heart rate and nausea. 

 

References


[1] “Hordenine” examine.com, retrieved 21-12-2014

[2]  “Hordenine” Nootriment.com, retrieved 21-12-2014

[3]  “Deamination of Hordenine by monoamine oxidase and its action on vasa deferentia of the rat” Barwell CJ1, Basma AN, Lafi MA, Leake LD, J Pharm Pharmacol. 1989 Jun;41(6):421-3.

[4] “Norepinephrine” Rice Computational and Applied Mathematics University notes: http://www.caam.rice.edu/~cox/wrap/norepinephrine.pdf retrieved 21-12-2014

[5] “Pharmacological effects of Hordenine” Hapke HJ, Strathmann W, Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 1995 Jun;102(6):228-32.

[6]  “Selective inhibitors of monoamine oxidase type B and the "cheese effect" Finberg JP, Gillman K, Int Rev Neurobiol. 2011;100:169-90.

 

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