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Rutin

Rutin is a ubiquitous bioflavonoid found in most fruits and vegetables, alongside Quercetin. Research has shown that Rutin is an effective antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compound with immune-support benefits. [1] [2] [3] 

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Rutin Reviews

 

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At a Quick Glance

 

Also Known As

Rutoside
Quercetin-3-O-rutinoside
Sophorin
Vitamin P

How It Works

Powerful anti-inflammatory
Natural antioxidant

Is Used For

Supporting a healthy circulatory system
Promoting health and vitality
Positive effects on skin
Immune support

Medical Disclaimer

This product is not intended to treat, diagnose, or cure any disease or ailment. Please read and fully understand the potential adverse effects before using this product. These statements have not been reviewed by the FDA. Please consult your doctor before using any supplements, especially if you have any medical conditions.

 

 

 

Benefits and Effects on Humans

Based on Available Scientific Research and Anecdotal Evidence

 

 

Used For: Efficacy
Healthy Circulatory System ★★★★★
Antioxidant Effects ★★★★★
Anti-Inflammatory ★★★★★
Immune Support ★★★★
Well-being and Vitality ★★★★

 

 

How to Use

Recommended Serving Size, Intervals, Cycling, Forms Available, and Application

Serving Size

According to clinical studies, the best serving size for this supplement appears to be around 500 mg, taken once to twice daily. [4] This serving size provides enough of the active compound to produce all of the health benefits associated with its use. Rutin and Quercetin are considered to be beneficial to human health, especially alongside a healthy diet and lifestyle with lots of fruits and vegetables and regular exercise.

It is not recommended to exceed the serving size. Rutin may go well when taken alongside a Quercetin supplement, and its bioavailability may be enhanced through the use of Piperine. If you’re planning on taking this supplement in a stack, always reduce the serving size and assess the efficacy before increasing it again.

 

Application

 

    1.  ‘Toss-and-wash’ method:

      1. Measure the correct serving size of Rutin with a measuring scoop or scale.
      2. Pour this onto a credit card, spoon, or piece of paper.
      3. Toss the powder into the back of your mouth.
      4. Wash it down with a glass of water.


  1. Rutin breakfast smoothie

  2. Measure the correct serving size of Rutin with a measuring scoop or scale.
  3. Cut up 3-4 servings of your favorite fruits – bananas, apples, berries, dates, or oranges.
  4. Add Rutin and the fruit into a blender.
  5. Add 1 glass of water or fruit juice.
  6. Blend the mixture until it is smooth and drinkable.
  7. Enjoy as a healthy breakfast smoothie.

 

Evidence-Based Research

 

 

 

1. Summary

Rutin (Rutoside, Vitamin P, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, sophorin, 3,3′,4′,5,7-pentahydroxyflavone-3-rhamnoglucoside) is a powerful and effective natural supplement for promoting health. It is found in numerous plant species, including most fruits and vegetables, and other well-known herbs like Ginko Biloba and St. John’s wort. [1]

It is a powerful phytochemical for supporting a healthy circulatory system and acts as a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory.[1] [2] [3] Research has also shown that Rutin may have immune-supporting benefits and may also be useful in promoting healthy skin.[4] [5]

Chemically, Rutin is very similar to Quercetin. It consists of a Quercetin molecule bound to a rutinose sugar compound and the two compounds are almost always found together in natural sources. In the body, Rutin acts as a Quercetin deliverer to the large intestine. In the large intestine, Rutin is also metabolized by microflora (natural gut bacteria) to liberate Quercetin, which acts as the active compound.[2]

 

One of the key benefits of this supplement is its ability to provide a ‘slow-release’ form of Quercetin. It takes an extended amount of time for gut bacteria to metabolize Rutin in the large intestine, which is in contrast to Quercetin supplements that generally have a fairly short half-life. Rutin, on the other hand, has a long release time, which provides you with health benefits over a sustained period.[6]

As a result of its ubiquitous occurrence in herbs, fruits, and vegetables, this powerful health-promoting flavonoid has been used for hundreds (possibly thousands) of years in traditional remedies by many different societies. It is found in numerous well-known herbs and plant extracts such as buckwheat, Japanese pagoda tree, Eucalyptus, lime tree flowers, elderflowers, hawthorn, rue, St. John’s Wort, Ginkgo, apples, and other fruits and vegetables.[7] [8] [9] Furthermore, Rutin is included in over 130 registered therapeutic medical preparations.[9]

 

Numerous studies have been conducted on this fascinating plant-based health compound. According to a recent review of the literature, it possesses a number of health benefits, including antioxidant, cytoprotective, vasoprotective, neuroprotective, and cardioprotective properties.[3] It is considered to be a ‘vital phytochemical’ and is one of the most important active compounds that confer health benefits of fruits and vegetables, thus doctors now recommend eating at least 8 – 10 servings of fruits and vegetables per day.[10]

 

Foods rich in Rutin 

2. Rutin and Quercetin

Some medical researchers are using the term “Vitamin P” to refer to a class of compounds known as ‘bioflavonoids’. There are around 4000 – 6000 bioflavonoids that occur in nature. Many of them have not yet been sufficiently studied for their potential health benefits in humans. However, it is now well established that most bioflavonoids have important antioxidant and anti-inflammatory benefits in the human body.[11]

Rutin and Quercetin are two very similar bioflavonoids. In fact, the two compounds are structurally identical, except for the additional rutinose sugar molecule that is attached to Rutin. Of all the bioflavonoids, Rutin and Quercetin have been studied the most for their effects in humans, partly because of they are so easily found in fruits and vegetables and due to their effectiveness.[7] [8] [9]

Natural food sources of Rutin and Quercetin include: apples, almonds, berries, citrus fruits, dates, tomatoes, sweet potatoes, cherries, and watermelon.[8] [9] Unlike Quercetin, Rutin is metabolized by gut bacteria in the stomach, which ‘break-off’ the rutinose sugar molecule. To fully enjoy the benefits of this supplement, enhancing your gut bacteria through the use of a prebiotic or probiotic supplement is recommended.[12]

 

3. Human Effects

 

3.1. Supports a Healthy Circulatory System

One of the primary benefits of Rutin is its ability to help support a healthy circulatory system.[3] It achieves this through a number of biochemical processes in the body that are aimed at supporting good health. One study found that isolated extracts of Rutin from the Korean Dendropanax morbifera plant helped against thrombosis and coagulation in mice, thereby promoting blood flow.[13]

In another study, researchers examined the effects of this supplement on cholesterol levels in rats with hypercholesterolemia. The results showed that, after 4 weeks of supplementation, total cholesterol levels and LDL-cholesterol had significantly declined.[14] In a similar study, that involved 50 human participants with diabetes, researchers again found that after 60 days of Rutin supplementation, LDL-cholesterol decreased, while HDL-cholesterol ( “good” cholesterol) increased.[5] 

A recent review of the literature about Rutin took into account all of the previous studies with relevance to health benefits on the circulatory system. The numerous in vitro and in vivo (in living specimens) studies all point towards beneficial effects on heart health, especially through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory processes.[15] Finally, a 2008 study published in the Journal of Angiology examined the effects that Rutin supplementation for over 5 years had on circulatory health. The results demonstrated a partial serving size-related improvement in circulatory health overall.[16]

 

3.2. Powerful Anti-Inflammatory Benefits

The beneficial effects of Rutin on health are believed to be strongly related to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Several in vitro and in vivo studies have confirmed this supplement’s powerful anti-inflammatory effects.[17] Inflammation alone is not necessarily a bad thing, as inflammation is the body’s response to illness and is typically a sign of a healthy immune system. However, certain conditions, including stress, unhealthy diets, and a lack of exercise can lead to an overworked immune system and chronic inflammation in the body. This has several negative effects on health, which is why anti-inflammatories are often recommended.[18]

The anti-inflammatory effects of plant flavonoids – like this supplement, for example, are well established. However, it is not always possible to consume the recommended 8 – 10 servings of fruits and vegetables per day, which is when an anti-inflammatory supplement like Rutin becomes useful. Research suggests that this supplement acts on the ‘High mobility group box 1’ (HMGB1) protein, which is involved in inflammatory processes in the body. By inhibiting its activity, Rutin helps target inflammation in the body.[19]

 

3.3. Natural Antioxidant – Bioflavonoid

Antioxidants are responsible for destroying harmful reactive ‘free-radical’ chemicals in the body. These are produced through natural metabolic processes but can occur in high concentrations as a result of ill health, poor diets, a lack of exercise, environmental pollution, and lifestyle choices such as smoking or drinking excessively. The human body has a number of complex systems in place to destroy natural free-radicals so that they don’t cause any harm. However, too many can be harmful to your health, especially if they react with DNA in the cell nucleus.

As an antioxidant, Rutin helps prevent the dangerous activity of free-radicals that are produced in the body. In one study, the antioxidant properties of this supplement were compared to those of ascorbic acid (vitamin C), a well-known natural antioxidant vitamin. The results showed that Rutin was slightly more effective than Vitamin C as an antioxidant.[20]

In another study, researchers examined the antioxidant effects of Rutin on mice that were exposed to Gamma radiation. Radiation is a well-known factor that causes the body to produce very large amounts of free-radicals. The study found that this supplement was able to inhibit most free-radical species that were produced by the radiation and to prevent oxidative stress, thereby indicating its efficacy as a natural antioxidant supplement.[21]

 

3.4. Supports a Healthy Immune System

A few studies have examined the effects of Rutin on the immune system and immune function. The results demonstrated its ability to help support healthy immune function. In one study, rats were given Cyclosporine – an immunosuppressant toxin – to better elucidate the potential of this flavonoid to enhance and protect immunity. The results showed that both Quercetin and Rutin reduced the immunosuppressant activity of the toxin by over 50%. [22]

In a similar study, the immunity-enhancing effects of this supplement were explored in experimental animal models. Factors such as cellular immunity and humoral immunity were monitored and assessed. The results showed a significant increase in antibody concentration as well as enhanced immunoglobulin levels. In animals treated with an immunosuppressant toxin, the function of leucocytes was also restored.[23]

 

3.5. May Help to Promote Healthy Skin

Oxidative stress that develops as a result of free-radicals has long been associated with the aging process in skin. More specifically, exposure to UV radiation from sunlight causes the production of free radicals in the skin, which is believed to speed up the aging process.[24]

That’s why antioxidants are often considered as being useful for promoting healthy skin and for reducing the signs of aging. In one study, researchers examined the effects of Rutin on aging in human dermal fibroblasts and human skin cells. For the in vivo experiment, a Rutin-containing cream was applied to the skin of 40 participants between the ages of 30 – 50 years, for a period of 4 weeks. A number of factors were assessed including dermal density, skin elasticity, the length and area of crow’s feet, and the number of under-eye wrinkles.[4]

The results showed that this natural flavonoid increased the mRNA expression of collagen and had pronounced antioxidant activity in dermal cells. At the end of the study, overall skin elasticity was enhanced, and the length, as well as the area and number of wrinkles, decreased, thereby demonstrating the protective effects of Rutin on skin ageing as a result of free-radical oxidation.[4] Importantly, these studies were performed on cell cultures and as well as with human participants by using a lotion. As yet, there are no studies to assess the effectiveness of oral Rutin supplements on skin aging.

Rutin is great for supporting a healthy mood

 

4. Safety and Toxicity

 

4.1. Side Effects

Rutin is a very powerful natural flavonoid compound and exceeding the suggested serving size is not recommended. At large servings, side effects may include blurred vision, stomach upset, headache, flushed skin, rashes, nervousness, changes in heartbeat, and muscle stiffness.[25]

In addition, there may be a risk of allergy when using this supplement. If you experience rash-like symptoms, discontinue use immediately. There is also evidence that suggests this supplement may act as a blood-thinner.[26] If you have a history of heart disease or blood clots, or you are taking blood thinners, do not use this supplement without first consulting your doctor.

It is not recommended to use this supplement if you are taking any medication. This supplement may not be safe for pregnant or breastfeeding women as there is currently insufficient research to support its use.

 

Chemical structure of Rutin extract

 

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How We Research Our Content

Our content is written using meticulous research methods and claims are backed by links to scientific references, wherever possible. The author and editors of Liftmode's Research Team have strong academic backgrounds in microbiology, physiology, and biochemistry.

Content Updated On: February 14thth, 2019

 

 

Content By:

Written By: Tristan Pelser, B.Sc. in Molecular Biology
Medically Reviewed by: Dr. Karen Vieira, PhD in Biomedical Sciences

 

Scientific Support and References:

[1] Nishimuro, H., Ohnishi, H., Sato, M., Ohnishi-Kameyama, M.. Matsunaga, I. ... Kobori, M. (2015). Estimated Daily Intake and Seasonal Food Sources of Quercetin in Japan. Nutrients. 7(4):2345-2358.

[2] Kim, H., Kong, H., Choi, B., Yang, Y., Kim, Y., Lim, M. J., Neckers, L., & Jung, Y. (2005). Metabolic and pharmacological properties of rutin, a dietary quercetin glycoside, for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Pharm Res. 22(9):1499-509.

[3] Ganeshpurkar, A., & Saluja, A. K. (2017). The Pharmacological Potential of Rutin. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal. 25(2):149-164.

[4] Choi, S. J., Lee, S. N., Kim, K., Joo da, H., Shin, S. ... Cha, H. J. (2016). Biological effects of rutin on skin aging. International Journal of Molecular Medicine. 38(1):357-363.

[5] Sattanathan, K., Dhanapal, C. K., & Manavalan, R. (2010). LDL Lowering properties of rutin in diabetic patients. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences. 1(4):467-473.

[6] Jaganath, I. B., Mullen, W., Lean, M. E., Edwards, C. A., & Crozier, A. (2009). In vitro catabolism of rutin by human fecal bacteria and the antioxidant capacity of its catabolites. Free Radic Biol Med.2009; 47(8):1180-9.

[7] Bolten, W. W., Glade, M. J., Raum, S., & Ritz, B. W. (2015). The safety and efficacy of an enzyme combination in managing knee osteoarthritis pain in adults: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Arthritis. 2015:251521.

[8] Kreft, M. (2016). Buckwheat phenolic metabolites in health and disease. Nutr Res Rev. 29(1):30-9. 

[9] Chua, L. S. (2013). A review on plant-based rutin extraction methods and its pharmacological activities. J Ethnopharmacol. 150(3):805-17.

[10] Aune, D., Giovannucci, E., Boffetta, P., Fadnes, L. T., Keum, N., Norat, T., Greenwood, D. C., Riboli, E., Vatten, L.J., & Tonsad, S. (2017). Fruit and vegetable intake and the risk of cardiovascular disease, total cancer and all-cause mortality—a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. International Journal of Epidemiology. 46(3):1029-1056

[11] Russo, A., Acquaviva, R., Campisi, A., Sorrenti, V., Di Giacomo, C., Virgata, G., Barcellona, M. L., & Vanella, A. (2000). Bioflavonoids as antiradicals, antioxidants and DNA cleavage protectors. Cell Biol Toxicol. 16(2):91-8.

[12] Tuyishime, A. M., Harimana, Y., & Sun, J. (2018). Biotransformation of Rutin to Quercetin by Human Gut Bacteria and Its Effect on Rutin Bioavailability. Research Inventy: International Journal Of Engineering And Science. 8(2):11-17.

[13] Choi, J. H., Kim, D. W., Park, S. E., Lee, H. J., Kim, K. M., Kim, K. J., Kim, M. K., Kim, S. J., & Kim, S. (2015). Anti-thrombotic effect of rutin isolated from Dendropanax morbifera Leveille. J Biosci Bioeng. 120(2):181-6.

[14] Ziaee, A., Zamansoltani, F,, Nassiri-Asl. M,, & Abbasi, E. Effects of rutin on lipid profile in hypercholesterolaemic rats. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2009; s104(3):253-8.

[15] Habtemariam, S., & Lentini, G. (2015). The Therapeutic Potential of Rutin for Diabetes: An Update. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2015;15(7):524-8.

[16] Belcaro, G., Cesarone, M. R., Ledda, A., Cacchio, M., Ruffini, I. ... Grossi, M. G. (2008). 5-Year control and treatment of edema and increased capillary filtration in venous hypertension and diabetic microangiopathy using O-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutosides: a prospective comparative clinical registry. Angiology. 59 Suppl 1:14S-20S.

[17] Guardia, T., Rotelli, A. E., Juarez, A. O., & Pelzer, L. E. (2001). Anti-inflammatory properties of plant flavonoids. Effects of rutin, quercetin and hesperidin on adjuvant arthritis in rat. Farmaco. 56(9):683-7.

[18] Liu, Y. Z., Wang, Y. X., & Jiang, C. L. (2017).  Inflammation: The Common Pathway of Stress-Related Diseases. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. 11:316.

[19] Yoo, H., Ku, S. K., Baek, Y. D., & Bae, J. S. (2014). Anti-inflammatory effects of rutin on HMGB1-induced inflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo. Inflamm Res. 63(3):197-206.

[20] Yang, J., Guoa, J., & Yuan, J. (2008). In vitro antioxidant properties of rutin. LWT – Food Science and Technology. 41(6):1060-1066.

[21] Patil, S. L., Mallaiah, S. H., & Patil, R. K. (2013). Antioxidative and radioprotective potential of rutin and quercetin in Swiss albino mice exposed to gamma radiation. Journal of Medical Physics / Association of Medical Physicists of India. 38(2):87-92.

[22] Yu, C. P., Wu, P. P., Hou, Y. C., Lin, S. P., Chen, C. T., & Chao, P. D. (2011). Quercetin and Rutin Reduced the Bioavailability of Cyclosporine from Neoral, an Immunosuppressant, through Activating P-Glycoprotein and CYP 3A4. J Agric Food Chem. 59(9):4644-8.

[23] Ganeshpurkar, A., & Saluja, A. K. (2017). Protective effect of rutin on humoral and cell mediated immunity in rat model. Chem Biol Interact. 1;273:154-159.

[24] Poljšak, B., & Dahmane, R. (2012). Free Radicals and Extrinsic Skin Aging. Dermatology Research and Practice, 2012:135206.

[25] Gotter, A., & Wilson, D.R. (2017). The Potential Health Benefits of Rutin. Healthline.com. [online] Available at: https://www.healthline.com/health/potential-benefits-of-rutin [Accessed 15 January, 2019].

[26] Sheu, J. R., Hsiao, G., Chou, P. H., Shen, M. Y., Chou, D. S. (2004). Mechanisms involved in the antiplatelet activity of rutin, a glycoside of the flavonol quercetin, in human platelets. J Agric Food Chem. 52(14):4414-8.

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