SALG (S-Acetyl L-Glutathione)

S-Acetyl L-Glutathione (SAL-G) offers an improved availability version of Glutathione supplements. Glutathione is a powerful antioxidant that is essential for maintaining the proper functioning of the brain and body. It helps to support a healthy circulatory and immune system, and is also effective for anti-ageing and promoting healthy skin.

 

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At a Quick Glance

 

Also Known As

Glutathione
Gluthathione
S-ALG
SAL-G

How It Works

Redox reaction with GSSG
Eliminates free-radicals
Prevents oxidative stress
Regulates cellular apoptosis
Transports toxins out of cells
Regulates blood sugar levels

 

Is Used For

Powerful antioxidant properties
Circulatory system health
Immune system function
Anti-Aging
Skin health
Men’s vitality

Medical Disclaimer

This product is not intended to treat, diagnose, or cure any disease or ailment. Please read and fully understand the potential adverse effects before using this product. These statements have not been reviewed by the FDA. Please consult your doctor before using any supplements, especially if you have any medical conditions.

 

 

 

Benefits and Effects on Humans

Based on Available Scientific Research and Anecdotal Evidence

 

 

Used For: Efficacy
Powerful Antioxidant ★★★★★
Supports a Healthy Circulatory System ★★★★★
Supports a Healthy Immune System ★★★★★
Helps with Symptoms of Aging ★★★★
Promotes Men’s Vitality ★★★★
Promotes Healthy Skin ★★★

  

How to Use

Recommended Serving Size, Intervals, Cycling, Forms Available, and Application

 

Serving Size

The typical serving size for S-Acetyl L-Glutathione is between 200 – 500 mg per day. Most studies tend to use a serving size on the higher end of the spectrum – typically around 500 mg per serving. A larger serving size may not necessarily increase the effects, and may increase the risk of experiencing adverse effects. Do not exceed the recommended serving size. Keep out of reach of children.

 

Application

S-Acetyl L-Glutathione comes as a crystalline powder. See the serving instructions on the tub for more information about measuring out the correct serving size. For a more accurate measurement, the use of a milligram scale is recommended.

 

In  a glass of hot water:

This product is soluble in hot water and practically insoluble in cold water. Dissolve the measured serving size into hot water of tea and drink.

 

‘Toss-and-wash method’:

  1. Measure the correct serving size of Icariin with a measuring scoop or scale.
  2. Pour this onto a credit card, spoon, or piece of paper.
  3. Toss the powder into the back of your mouth.
  4. Wash it down with a glass of water.

 

Evidence-Based Research

 

 

1. Summary

Glutathione is an antioxidant produced in your body. It is comprised of three amino acids: glutamine, glycine, and cysteine.[1] Glutathione is a very important antioxidant that helps to protect your cells against damage from toxins and stress. It is an essential part of the glutathione system and is vital for maintaining and supporting a healthy brain and body. Glutathione deficiency has been linked to multiple ailments and is especially prevalent in older persons, since the body produces less glutathione with age.[2]

 

Apart from its antioxidant effects, Glutathione is also important for transporting mercury out of the cells and brain. It helps to regulate cell death and growth, and is essential for the functioning of mitochondria (the ‘power plant’ of a cell). All in all, it’s importance for maintaining good health cannot be overstated.[2]

 

Unfortunately, Glutathione supplements have typically not been very effective due to poor absorption when taken orally. S-Acetyl L-Glutathione (SAL-G) allows for glutathione to be easily absorbed and transported into tissues. The acetyl group protects the compound against oxidation, so it remains stable and is able to increase reduced glutathione (GSH) levels much more than regular Glutathione supplements. When taken as a supplement, SAL-G is rapidly metabolised into glutathione, which is quickly taken up into cells, where it can be used for its antioxidant effects.[3]

 

The recommended serving size is 200 – 500 mg per day. Side effects are uncommon but may include itchy skin, rash, and an upset stomach, at larger servings. Do not exceed the recommended serving size. If you have any medical conditions or are using medication, please consult with your doctor before using this product.

Glutathione supplements for health

 

2. Liposomal Glutathione vs. S-Acetyl Glutathione

While searching for an effective GSH product, you may have come across something called ‘liposomal Glutathione’. This is a very modern form of GSH that uses nanotechnology to improve absorption and availability. Liposomes are tiny, spherical ‘vesicles’ found in cells. In cells, they contain a tiny drop of water that is surrounded by a lipid membrane. In the body, liposomes are used to transport water-soluble substances into or out of a cell.[4]

 

Advancements in medical technology have allowed scientists to develop liposomes as functional units to transport medicines into cells. This is especially useful for drugs and medications that have a low bioavailability. When it comes to liposomal Glutathione – like other liposomal delivery systems – researchers first synthesize liposomes in a test tube and then ‘inject’ a tiny amount of Glutathione inside them. When taken orally, the liposome units are then able to deliver the GSH into cells.[5]

 

This advanced delivery system is effective at getting around the poor bioavailability of normal Glutathione supplements. However, Liposomal Glutathione is a lot more expensive to produce than S-Acetyl L-Glutathione, and there is little evidence that it is more effective at increasing cellular GSH levels. For all intents and purposes, SAL-G is just as effective and much more affordable than Liposomal Glutathione.[6]

 

3. Human Effects

 

3.1.Powerful Antioxidant

S-Acetyl L-Glutathione is one of the most powerful natural antioxidants available today. It exists in cells in either a reduced form – glutathione (GSH) – or an oxidized form – glutathione disulfide (GSSG).[7] The ratio between GSH and GSSG determines the redox status of a cell, where healthy cells have a ratio of >100, and unhealthy cells have a lower ratio of around 1 – 10.[2] Glutathione is vital for protecting cells from reactive oxygen and nitrogen compounds. According to a recent paper on the antioxidant role of glutathione, some of its key roles in the cell include:

 

  • Destroying reactive compounds like superoxide and hydroxyl radicals
  • Improving the function of antioxidant enzymes
  • Regenerating vitamins C and E
  • Destroying harmful by-products of metabolism in the liver [2]

 

Antioxidants are essential for maintaining a healthy brain and body. Several diseases are related to a lack of antioxidants in the body, including neurodegenerative, pulmonary, autoimmune, cardiovascular, age-related, and liver diseases.[2] The importance of consuming adequate antioxidants in the diet cannot be overstressed. In fact, glutathione has been studied extensively for its potential use in clinical applications for improving conditions related to oxidative stress.[8] Today, it is available as a dietary supplement to support a healthy diet and lifestyle. Glutathione’s antioxidant benefits are some of the most effective currently available! [9]

 

3.2.Promotes a Healthy Circulatory System

There are a number of positive spin-offs that result from S-Acetyl L-Glutathione’s antioxidant effects. One of the most important of these is its ability to help promote a healthy circulatory system. For example, a number of studies have found a correlation between reduced glutathione levels and an increase in the risk for cardiovascular disease.[10] In one Japanese study, the glutathione levels were measured in 134 patients compared to 435 healthy control subjects. The results showed a clear and significant correlation between a good level of glutathione and a healthy circulatory system.[11]

 

Similar studies have indicated that sufficient levels of glutathione are important for helping to maintain healthy blood sugar levels.[12] For example, one study tested the glutathione levels in 58 patients with impaired glucose tolerance (compared to 28 participants with healthy blood glucose levels). Again, the results indicated a significant correlation between reduced levels of glutathione and impaired glucose tolerance.[13] Interestingly, at least one study found that high glucose levels impair glutathione concentrations in the gut – so, to maintain healthy glutathione levels, it is recommended to avoid a diet that is very high in sugar! [14]

 

Antioxidants are typically used to promote a healthy circulatory system because of their effects on preventing cholesterol oxidation. Cholesterol is produced naturally in your body, but when there is too much cholesterol in your system, it can cause dangerous effects. By preventing the oxidation of cholesterol, S-Acetyl L-Glutathione helps to protect the circulatory system against these negative effects.[15] As with sugar, studies have found that diets rich in oxidised cholesterol (found in red meats, processed foods, and fried products) may reduce levels of glutathione in your body.[16]

 

3.3.Supports a Healthy Immune System

The third benefit of glutathione is its ability to help support a healthy immune system. Antioxidants are essential elements of the immune system. Reactive oxygen species (sometimes called ‘free-radicals’) cause inflammation in the body. While inflammation is an important function of the immune system and indicates a healthy reaction, too much inflammation can have negative effects on your body (this is sometimes called ‘chronic inflammation’ and is increasingly prevalent in developed countries due to stress, lifestyles, and diet).[17] [18] By destroying reactive oxygen species, glutathione helps to reduce excess inflammation in your body.[19]

 

Apart from reducing Studies have found that glutathione not only reduces inflammation but also helps to support a healthy and functional immune system. White blood cells and antibodies – the ‘search and destroy’ units of the immune system – require healthy glutathione levels to function properly.[20] In one study, researchers administered supplemental cysteine (one of the three amino acids that make up glutathione) to patients suffering from HIV, which resulted in a significant improvement in immune function.[21] In another study, researchers found that glutathione not only improves inflammation markers but also helps to fine-tune the immune system response against infection.[22]

 

3.4.Helps with Aging

As we get older, our bodies stop producing as much glutathione. Researchers believe that the reduction in glutathione production is related to the increased prevalence of diseases in the elderly. In fact, some researchers now suggest using glutathione levels as a measure of ageing.[23] In one study, it was found that persons in the age group of 60 – 79 years old had 17% less glutathione than younger age groups.[24] Another study found that women between the ages of 63 and 103 with higher-than-normal levels of glutathione had improved mental and physical health, comparable to much younger people.[25]

 

In a recent study, researchers found that oral supplementation with 500 mg/day of a reduced form of Glutathione, over 12 weeks, improved skin properties including melanin index, wrinkle count, and resistance against sun damage.[26] With regards to the effects of stress on aging, the protective effects of glutathione tend to decrease as we get older, leaving cells more susceptible to damage caused by stress – and especially so in the brain.[27]

 

Finally, as we get older, programmed cell death (apoptosis) increases throughout the body. One form is called ‘ferroptosis’, which is caused by unchecked iron-dependent oxidation of lipids. Glutathione usually protects your cells against ferroptosis, but as we get older and we stop producing as much, this protection diminishes. This recent knowledge has prompted scientists to consider developing glutathione as an important new anti-aging therapeutic agent to prevent cell death in the elderly.[28]

 

3.5.For Men’s Health and Vitality

Some studies have indicated that supplementing with Glutathione may help to improve strength and muscle gain. In one study, after 4 weeks of resistance training, participants who were taking glutathione had improvements in lean muscle mass, compared to those taking a placebo.[29] Another study found that glutathione supplements may help to reduce muscle fatigue and post-exercise soreness.[30] Finally, a 2010 study found that prolonged physical inactivity caused oxidative damage and significant muscle mass reduction, both of which are related to reducing glutathione levels. The study authors recommended administering glutathione supplements to inactive persons, as a means of preventing muscle atrophy.[31]

 

Finally, glutathione plays an important role in the mobility of sperm and male fertility.[32] Several studies have indicated that reduced levels of. glutathione are associated with an increased risk of infertility, in both men and women – again related to its powerful antioxidant benefits.[33] Please note that this product is sold as a dietary supplement, to be used as an addition to a healthy diet and lifestyle. This product is not intended to treat, diagnose, or cure any disease or ailment.

glutathione boosts energy

 

4. Safety and Toxicity

 

4.1.Side Effects

Side effects from S-Acetyl L-Glutathione are uncommon when it is used at the recommended serving size. In one study, side effects included itchy skin, rash, and tiredness.[34] WedMD, an online source of medical information, lists the possible side effects of long-term use that include reduced zinc levels and the potential to cause asthma attacks and wheezing in asthmatics.[35]

 

According to RXList, S-Acetyl L-Glutathione has no known interactions with any medication.[36] Nevertheless, it is recommended to consult with your doctor before using this supplement if you have any ongoing medical conditions or are using medication.

 

Do not exceed the recommended serving size. Keep out of reach of children.

 

  

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How We Research Our Content

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Content Updated On: July 4th, 2019

 

 

Content By:

Written By: Tristan Pelser, B.Sc. in Molecular Biology

 

Citations and Supporting Literature

 

[1] Wu, G., Fang, Y.-Z., Yang, S., Lupton, J. R., & Turner, N. D. (2004). Glutathione Metabolism and Its Implications for Health. The Journal of Nutrition, 134(3), 489–492. doi:10.1093/jn/134.3.489

[2] Pizzorno J. (2014). Glutathione!. Integrative medicine (Encinitas, Calif.), 13(1), 8–12.

[3] Fanelli, S., Francioso, A., Cavallaro, R. A., d’Erme, M., Mosca, L., et al. (2018) Oral Administration of S-acetyl-glutathione: Impact on the Levels of Glutathione in Plasma and in Erythrocytes of Healthy Volunteers. Int J Clin Nutr Diet 4: 134.

[4] Akbarzadeh, A., Rezaei-Sadabady, R., Davaran, S., Joo, S. W., Zarghami, N., Hanifehpour, Y., … Nejati-Koshki, K. (2013). Liposome: classification, preparation, and applications. Nanoscale research letters, 8(1), 102. doi:10.1186/1556-276X-8-102

[5] Sinha, R., Sinha, I., Calcagnotto, A., Trushin, N., Haley, J. S., Schell, T. D., & Richie, J. P. (2017). Oral supplementation with liposomal glutathione elevates body stores of glutathione and markers of immune function. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 72(1), 105–111. doi:10.1038/ejcn.2017.132

[6] Ash, M. (2011) Oral Glutathione Equivalent to IV Therapy! ClinicalEducation.org [online] Available at: https://www.clinicaleducation.org/resources/reviews/oral-glutathione-equivalent-to-iv-therapy/

[7] Allen, J., & Bradley, R. D. (2011). Effects of oral glutathione supplementation on systemic oxidative stress biomarkers in human volunteers. Journal of alternative and complementary medicine (New York, N.Y.), 17(9), 827–833. doi:10.1089/acm.2010.0716

[8] Forman, H. J., Zhang, H., & Rinna, A. (2009). Glutathione: overview of its protective roles, measurement, and biosynthesis. Molecular aspects of medicine, 30(1-2), 1–12. doi:10.1016/j.mam.2008.08.006

[9] Gaucher, C., Boudier, A., Bonetti, J., Clarot, I., Leroy, P., & Parent, M. (2018). Glutathione: Antioxidant Properties Dedicated to Nanotechnologies. Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland), 7(5), 62. doi:10.3390/antiox7050062

[10] Damy, T., Kirsch, M., Khouzami, L., Caramelle, P., Le Corvoisier, P., Roudot-Thoraval, F., … Pecker, F. (). Glutathione deficiency in cardiac patients is related to the functional status and structural cardiac abnormalities. PloS one, 4(3), e4871. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0004871

[11] Shimizu, H., Kiyohara, Y., Kato, I., Kitazono, T., Tanizaki, Y., Kubo, M., … Iida, M. (2004). Relationship Between Plasma Glutathione Levels and Cardiovascular Disease in a Defined Population: The Hisayama Study. Stroke, 35(9), 2072–2077. doi:10.1161/01.str.0000138022.86509.2d

[12] Lutchmansingh, F. K., Hsu, J. W., Bennett, F. I., Badaloo, A. V., McFarlane-Anderson, N., Gordon-Strachan, G. M., … Boyne, M. S. (2018). Glutathione metabolism in type 2 diabetes and its relationship with microvascular complications and glycemia. PLOS ONE, 13(6), e0198626. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0198626

[13] Hakki Kalkan, I., & Suher, M. (2013). The relationship between the level of glutathione, impairment of glucose metabolism and complications of diabetes mellitus. Pakistan journal of medical sciences, 29(4), 938–942.

[14] Powell, L. A. (2004). High glucose decreases intracellular glutathione concentrations and upregulates inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression in intestinal epithelial cells. Journal of Molecular Endocrinology, 33(3), 797–803. doi:10.1677/jme.1.01671

[15] Rajasekaran, N. S., Sathyanarayanan, S., Devaraj, N. S., & Devaraj, H. (2005). Chronic depletion of glutathione (GSH) and minimal modification of LDL in vivo: its prevention by glutathione mono ester (GME) therapy. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) – Molecular Basis of Disease, 1741(1-2), 103–112. doi:10.1016/j.bbadis.2004.11.025

[16] Ringseis, R., Eder, K. (2004). Dietary oxidized cholesterol increases expression and activity of antioxidative enzymes and reduces the concentration of glutathione in the liver of rats. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2004 Jan;74(1):86-92

[17] Okin, D., & Medzhitov, R. (2012). Evolution of inflammatory diseases. Current biology : CB, 22(17), R733–R740. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2012.07.029

[18] EL-GABALAWY, H., GUENTHER, L. C., & BERNSTEIN, C. N. (2010). Epidemiology of Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Diseases: Incidence, Prevalence, Natural History, and Comorbidities. The Journal of Rheumatology Supplement, 85(0), 2–10. doi:10.3899/jrheum.091461

[19] Rahman, I. (1999). Inflammation and the Regulation of Glutathione Level in Lung Epithelial Cells. Antioxidants & Redox Signaling, 1(4), 425–447. doi:10.1089/ars.1999.1.4-425

[20] Hamilos, D. L., Wedner, H. J. (1985) The role of glutathione in lymphocyte activation. I. Comparison of inhibitory effects of buthionine sulfoximine and 2-cyclohexene-1-one by nuclear size transformation. J Immunol. 1985 Oct;135(4):2740-7.

[21] Dröge, W., Breitkreutz, R. (2000) Glutathione and immune function. Proc Nutr Soc. 59(4):595-600. Review.

[22] Diotallevi, M., Checconi, P., Palamara, A. T., Celestino, I., Coppo, L., Holmgren, A., … Ghezzi, P. (2017). Glutathione Fine-Tunes the Innate Immune Response toward Antiviral Pathways in a Macrophage Cell Line Independently of Its Antioxidant Properties. Frontiers in Immunology, 8.

[23] Singh, R. J. (2002). Glutathione: A marker and antioxidant for aging. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, 140(6), 380–381.

[24] Lang, CA, Naryshkin, S, Schneider, DL, Mills, BJ, and Lindeman, RD. Low blood glutathione levels in healthy aging adults. J Lab Clin Med. 1992; 120: 720–725

[25] Lang, CA, Mills, BJ, Lang, HL, Liu, MC, Riche, JP Jr, Mastropaolo, W et al. High blood glutathione levels accompany excellent physical and mental health in women 60 to 103 years old. J Lab Clin Med. 2002;140: 413–417 

[26] Weschawalit, S., Thongthip, S., Phutrakool, P., & Asawanonda, P. (2017). Glutathione and its antiaging and antimelanogenic effects. Clinical, cosmetic and investigational dermatology, 10, 147–153. doi:10.2147/CCID.S128339

[27] Weschawalit, S., Thongthip, S., Phutrakool, P., & Asawanonda, P. (2017). Glutathione and its antiaging and antimelanogenic effects. Clinical, cosmetic and investigational dermatology, 10, 147–153. doi:10.2147/CCID.S128339

[28] Homma, T., Fujii, J. (2015). Application of Glutathione as Anti-Oxidative and Anti-Aging Drugs. Curr Drug Metab. 2015;16(7):560-71.

[29] Hwang, P., Morales Marroquín, F. E., Gann, J., Andre, T., McKinley-Barnard, S., Kim, C., … Willoughby, D. S. (2018). Eight weeks of resistance training in conjunction with glutathione and L-Citrulline supplementation increases lean mass and has no adverse effects on blood clinical safety markers in resistance-trained males. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 15(1), 30. doi:10.1186/s12970-018-0235-x

[30] Aoi, W., Ogaya, Y., Takami, M., Konishi, T., Sauchi, Y., Park, E. Y., … Higashi, A. (2015). Glutathione supplementation suppresses muscle fatigue induced by prolonged exercise via improved aerobic metabolism. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 12, 7. doi:10.1186/s12970-015-0067-x

[31] Agostini, F., Dalla Libera, L., Rittweger, J., Mazzucco, S., Jurdana, M., Mekjavic, I. B., … Biolo, G. (2010). Effects of inactivity on human muscle glutathione synthesis by a double-tracer and single-biopsy approach. The Journal of physiology, 588(Pt 24), 5089–5104. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2010.198283

[32] Meseguer, M., Martínez-Conejero, J. A., Muriel, L., Pellicer, A., Remohí, J., Garrido, N. (2007). The human sperm glutathione system: a key role in male fertility and successful cryopreservation. Drug Metab Lett. 2007 Apr;1(2):121-6.

[33] Adeoye, O., Olawumi, J., Opeyemi, A., & Christiania, O. (2018). Review on the role of glutathione on oxidative stress and infertility. JBRA assisted reproduction, 22(1), 61–66. doi:10.5935/1518-0557.20180003

[34] Weschawalit, S., Thongthip, S., Phutrakool, P., & Asawanonda, P. (2017). Glutathione and its antiaging and antimelanogenic effects. Clinical, cosmetic and investigational dermatology, 10, 147–153. doi:10.2147/CCID.S128339

[35] WedMD (2019) Glutathione: Uses and Risks. WebMD.com [online] Available at https://www.webmd.com/vitamins-and-supplements/glutathione-uses-risks

[36] Cunha, J. (2018). Glutathione. RXList.com [online] Available at: https://www.rxlist.com/consumer_glutathione/drugs-condition.htm

 

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